Signals & Space Monthly Cyber Security Briefing

August 2018

Prepared by the CyberWire (Wednesday, August 1, 2018)

Pyongyang's post-summit good behavior proves evanescent, but hope remains it's still a work in progress.

North Korea seems to have ramped up missile production and resumed work on its nuclear program. The first reports of renewed activity along these lines appeared early in July, and just this week the US Intelligence Community said it had clear evidence that Pyongyang was back in the long-range weapons-of-mass-destruction business. Thus the bilateral undertakings agreed to at the summit seem to have endured perhaps two weeks on the outside. President Trump has expressed public confidence that North Korean leader Kim will return to the good behavior they agreed to in Singapore, but sources within the US Administration say the President is privately showing considerable frustration. Negotiations continued over the month, with Secretary of State Pompeo urging North Korea to follow a Vietnamese model of development.

One of the more significant fears of expanded North Korean nuclear capabilities in particular surrounds concern that Pyongyang will be a willing enabler of proliferation. There are recent reports of some incipient blackmail along these lines directed toward the Middle East.

NATO summit: US pushes Allies for 4% defense spending.

At the NATO summit the Atlantic Alliance clearly put cybersecurity and an effective cyber deterrent on the table as central concerns. This is a particularly noteworthy development, given aggressive Russian hybrid warfare (especially in the Near Abroad). It also has implications for relations with Macedonia, a former Yugoslav republic that's now NATO's newest member. Macedonia has been the subject of intense Russian attention in cyberspace. The European members of the Alliance doubt US commitment to this newest member.

For its part the US was most concerned that NATO members agree to double the Alliance's target of 2% GDP devoted to defense, asking for an increase to 4%. A much-feared declaration that the US would pull its forces out of Germany failed to materialize, and the US has reassured its partners that it remains as committed to the alliance as ever. The American calls for European governments to increase their military spending and to shoulder more responsibility within the Alliance were cold-shouldered by Canada's Prime Minister Trudeau, but were quietly welcomed in many quarters both within NATO and outside it.

Russian-American summit: misspeaking and clarification.

The Trump-Putin summit was conducted with only translators present. As far as is known, the US raised objections to Russian incursions into Ukraine and requested an explanation of Russian influence operations directed against US elections in particular. Russia refused to discuss its annexation of Crimea--a closed issue, in its view--and also denied having anything to do with cyber operations involving US elections. At a controversial joint presidential press conference at the end of the summit, President Trump appeared to say he accepted Russia's position on influence operations (not on Crimea). He backpedalled the following day in Washington, saying he meant to say the opposite of what he appeared to say, but this mollified few critics.

Tensions with Iran remain high.

Iran warned the US against "twisting the lion's tail." The US for its part has refused to budge on reimposition of sanctions on Iran over its nuclear program, and has resumed work on what some call an "Arab NATO": an alliance of Egypt, Jordan, and the Gulf Arab states that would be directed against Iran. "Arab NATO" is too strong, as it's unlikely the collection of states, however coincidentally aligned they may be against Iran, would develop the enduring cohesion that NATO has maintained for the last six decades. Nonetheless Arab concerns about Iran's regional ambitions remain high. As July came to a close there were discussions of the possibility of high-level talks between US and Iranian leaders. President Trump indicated his willingness to hold a summit, but exactly who would represent Iran remained an open question.

Cyber espionage is up, yet again.

China, Russia, and Iran are showing renewed vigor in their cyber espionage efforts. All three are closely interested in industrial espionage, China for profit, Iran for technology, and Russia for both.

The convergence of cyber and electronic warfare continues.

The US Army is in the midst of one of its periodic rediscoveries of the importance of electronic warfare. It's been on the receiving end of Russian EW in and around Syria, and the Service is taking the lessons learned there to heart. The Marine Corps is on board as a partner, and the Army is working to push electronic capabilities down to tactical levels. This time around EW means cyber operations at least as much as it does the familiar contest in the electromagnetic spectrum. The surest sign that the Army is serious about pushing an array of such capabilities down to unprecedentedly low levels is its integration of them into National Training Center rotations.

Space Marines or Space Guards.

There's been some debate over whether the USMC or the USCG provide the better analogy for a proposed Space Force. As some put it, the question is whether US policy favors that projected force being more Ka-Bar or more Swiss Army knife. In the near term it will be neither: there's no allocation for a Space Force in the current versions of the Defense appropriations bill. But many in both Congress and the Administration continue to be drawn to the idea.

Commercial space launch market remains healthy.

SpaceX shows considerable vigor and its Falcon series remains a sector darling. The US Air Force seems to be all-in on the company's Falcon Heavy for the future. DARPA's developmental space plane has now conducted a series of successful tests, so that system at least seems to have found its propulsion solution. Other commercial launch services made progress, notably Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin. Interest in offering space tourism has not abated, and successful flight and ground testing of systems that might deliver rubberneckers to suborbital holidays has made the prospect somewhat less far-fetched. (Still, expensive: it's a great view, but it won't compete with Pebble Beach or Telluride on price.)

The Europeans aren't giving up on the launch market, either: Ariane flew again this month, and governments on the Continent remain interested in keeping a share of this business. The European Space Agency and the governments who support it (led by France) remain fully committed to operating Kourou in French Guiana as a competitive spaceport. ArianeGroup remains an aggressive commercial champion, and, with Kourou's location at 5 North Latitude enabling it to take even more advantage of the earth's rotational velocity than either Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg, the facility expects to stay in business for the long haul.

The UK, whether still European in the political sense or not is at least geographically still there (more or less), has also advanced its own plans for a spaceport that will offer commercial launch services and quick-response military launches as well. The new spaceport, at Malness in Scotland, is expected to see its first launch in 2023. A Lockheed Martin-led consortium is preparing to put some cubesats in orbit that year. But if the military has its way, they'll get launches underway sooner than that.

Ave atque vale, JSTARS...

The venerable US Air Force C4ISR platform seems for now at least firmly on the path to retirement. The Air Force won't, as it had hoped, be able to rid itself immediately of all its E-8C Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System aircraft (several of which have been relegated to hangar-queen status). But under the 2019 Defense Authorization bill, the Service will be able to cancel the JSTARS recap program, and it will receive additional support for its coveted Advanced Battle Management System.

...but the U-2 will be with us for some time.

The US Air Force is putting a new developmental payload on some of its U-2s, so the Dragon Lady still has a lot of life left in her. A payload called "Symphony" will be mounted in an "Irascible" pod. What Symphony and Irascible will actually do is unclear, but speculation suggests that their capabilities are related to the "Triple Intelligence" concept Lockheed Martin has been advocating. This would integrate (at least?) three collection modalities into a single package. The U-2's high-altitude capabilities and long-range make it likely to remain in service for the foreseeable future.

JEDI is closer to reality.

The Pentagon is closer to awarding work under its multi-billion-dollar cloud contract.

Rapid acquisition of rapidly evolving technology.

Rapid acquisition of emerging technologies has long been a challenge for the Department of Defense. Its acquisition system has evolved to place a premium on procedural equity and the avoidance of petty fraud, waste, and abuse. This has tended to make it ill-suited to buying and fielding new technology quickly. Other Transaction Authorities (OTAs) have seen some use in procuring cyber and artificially intelligent systems. US Cyber Command intends to make more use of OTAs, and both the Department of Defense as a whole and the separate Service acquisition authorities seem likely to expand the practice. No one is quite sure just how much has been obligated under these more free-wheeling vehicles. Estimates over how much has been spent under OTAs over the last three years ranges from the $4.2 billion offered by the Federal Procurement Data System to the $21 billion reported by DoD public affairs officers. Other agencies, especially the Department of Homeland Security, are also making use of OTAs in the cybersecurity sector. 

And companies wishing to sell systems to the Pentagon have been told they'll need to harden them against cyber attack.



Today's edition of the CyberWire reports events affecting China, the European Union, France, Israel, Japan, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, NATO/OTAN, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Selected Reading

Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities (9)

Trends (3)

Marketplace (31)

Products, Services, and Solutions (9)

Technologies, Techniques, and Standards (15)

Design and Innovation (3)

Research and Development (9)

Legislation, Policy, and Regulation (34)

Litigation, Investigation, and Law Enforcement (2)

Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities

U.S. spy agencies: North Korea is working on new missiles (Washington Post) Weeks after the Trump-Kim summit, factories are still producing intercontinental ballistic missiles and enriched uranium.

North Korea activity at nuclear sites raises red flag in US (Nikkei Asian Review) Pyongyang said to continue enrichment and upgrading missile facilities

China dismisses report about North Korean missile factory upgrades (Washington Examiner) China dismissed a report that North Korea is continuing to upgrade a missile manufacturing facility, touting instead the “momentum” behind the denuclearization process.

North Korea reportedly pushed $1 billion nuclear blackmail to Israel — and it shows Pyongyang's real threat (Business Insider) President Trump insists that North Korea isn't a threat anymore. But even if North Korea doesn't detonate its nuclear weapons, Kim Jong Un could sell these weapons of mass destruction to states, or terrorists, that may use them.

How Silicon Valley Became a Den of Spies (POLITICO Magazine) The West Coast is a growing target of foreign espionage. And it’s not ready to fight back.

Iranian Cyber Activity Rising: Leafminer, OilRig Leading the Way (Latest Hacking News) Once again, cybersecurity researchers have Iran in their sights. Symantec, Palo Alto Networks, and German intelligence are all accusing Tehran

Details on an Air Force drone? $200 on the dark web (Fifth Domain) The hacked documents represent embarrassing security vulnerabilities and raises questions about basic cyber-hygiene in the U.S. military apparatus.

Russian Jamming Poses a Growing Threat to U.S. Troops in Syria (Foreign Policy) But this type of warfare also gives the United States a chance to learn about the latest Russian technology.

Russia Says Its New Aircraft Can Disable U.S. Satellites. Could This Trigger a Nuclear War? (The National Interest) Here is what you should know.


The New Arms Race Threatening to Explode in Space (WIRED) Trump’s call for a “Space Force” escalates a quiet, dangerous contest between the US, China, and Russia—one whose consequences no one really understands.

How Artificial Intelligence Will Reshape the Global Order (Foreign Affairs) The debate over the effects of artificial intelligence has been dominated by two themes. One is the fear of a singularity, an event in which an AI exceeds human intelligence and escapes human control, with possibly disastrous consequences. The other is the worry that a new industrial revolution will allow machines to disrupt and replace humans in every—or almost every—area of society, from transport to the military to healthcare.

5 technology trends driving an intelligent military (C4ISRNET) These are the essential components of any intelligent defense organization.


Pentagon Creates ‘Do Not Buy’ List of Russian, Chinese Software (Defense One) Increasingly alarmed at foreign hacking, DOD and intelligence officials are racing to educate the military and defense contractors.

If Your Weapons Aren’t Cyber-Hardened, Expect to Lose Pentagon Contracts (Defense One) The Pentagon intends to start assessing its weapons’ resistance to hacks, instead of leaving that to manufacturers.

With cyber forces underequipped, DoD turns to rapid prototyping contracting (Fifth Domain) DoD is using rapid prototyping authorities to equip its cyber warriors.

The Navy’s new acquisition tool speeds up tech prototyping (C4ISRNET) The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Atlantic is using an other transaction authority to facilitate the management of a consortium to prototype naval information warfare capabilities.

US Air Force looks to accelerate artificial intelligence contracts (Defense News) The service still isn't moving fast enough to harness AI, but its leadership wants to change that.

The Pentagon just got one step closer to awarding its $10 billion cloud contract (CNBC) Amazon is considered the front-runner, but other contenders include Microsoft, IBM and Oracle.

JSTARS Recap is officially dead (Defense News) The 2019 defense policy bill hands the Air Force a big win.

General Dynamics loses shot at lucrative Army intelligence system (Washington Technology) With a GAO ruling against it, General Dynamics won't be able to pursue the lucrative Distributed Common Ground System-Army project.

Thales Alenia Space and Maxar Technologies' SSL Form Consortium to Further Design and Develop Telesat's LEO Satellite Constellation (Markets Insider) Telesat has selected consortium to participate in its LEO system 'design phase'


Lockheed Teams With Raytheon-Thales JV on NATO Missile Defense C2 Effort (GovCon Wire) Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) has partnered with a joint venture be

Lockheed receives contract for THAAD field support (UPI) Lockheed Martin has been awarded a $164 million contract modification for continued support of deployed Terminal High Altitude Area Defense systems.

Northrop readies SIGINT for MQ-4C Triton UAV (Military & Aerospace) Signals intelligence (SIGINT) experts at Northrop Grumman Corp. are preparing to upgrade the U.S. Navy MQ-4C Triton long-range unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with SIGINT capability to match that of the Navy's EP-3 manned SIGINT aircraft.

Northrop Grumman Awarded $128M Contract by US Army to Provide Operation and Sustainment of Live, Virtual and Constructive Training and Simulation Environments (Northrop Grumman Newsroom) Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) has been selected by the U.S. Army to continue providing support for its Mission Command Training Center (MCTC). The new program, Mission Training Complex Contractor Support (MTCCS -...

Northrop Grumman Announces CEO Transition (Northrop Grumman Newsroom) Northrop Grumman (NYSE: NOC) chairman and chief executive officer Wes Bush announced today that he will step down from the position of chief executive officer effective Jan. 1, 2019. He will remain chairman through...

FARNBOROUGH: Raytheon to advise Jordan on aircraft cybersecurity ( Raytheon has been selected to advise the Kingdom of Jordan on the vulnerability of its aircraft networks and data to cyberattacks.

Farnborough 2018: Raytheon focuses in on cyber (Shephard Media) Cyber will be a major focus for Raytheon at the Farnborough International Airshow, with the company set to provide overviews of its cyber hardening systems ...

Raytheon eyes Army electronic and cyber warfare (Military and Aerospace) Electronic warfare (EW) and cyber security experts at the Raytheon Co. are expanding a U.S. Army EW planning system to include sophisticated RF spectrum management and offensive cyber warfare to exploit weaknesses in enemy battlefield electronics.

Dave Wajsgras: Raytheon in ‘Full Operational Mode’ on $1B DHS DOMino Cyber Contract (ExecutiveBiz) Dave Wajsgras, president of Raytheon’s intelligence, information and services business, told Federal News Radio executive editor Jason Miller in an interview published Friday that the company is now in a “full operational mode” on a potential five-year, $1 billion cybersecurity contract with the Department of Homeland Security. He said the Development, Operations and Maintenance contract...

U.S. Navy Selects Unisys Software for Secure, Mission-Critical Communications (PRNewswire) Under contract worth approximately $20 million, company will develop, operate and manage tactical military messaging software

Booz Allen to Help Navy Secure Maritime Cyber Systems Under $92M Task Order (GovCon Wire) Booz Allen Hamilton (NYSE: BAH) has received a five-year, $92 million task order to support the U.S.

Mercury Systems Receives $2.1M RF Microelectronics Order for Airborne Electronic Warfare Application (Nasdaq) Mercury Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:MRCY) (, announced it received a $2.1 million order for SWaP-optimized multi-function radio frequency (RF) modules from a leading defense prime contractor for an airborne electronic warfare application.

L3 acquires space tech firm Applied Defense Solutions (Washington Technology) L3 Technologies acquires aerospace engineering and space technology company Applied Defense Solutions for $50 million.

L3 Launches Commercial Aviation Business (Aviagtion Week) L3 Technologies launches a new commercial aviation division integrating both on- and off-aircraft products and services for aviation customers.

NASA adapting to, benefiting from more crowded spaceflight industry ( The changing dynamic in space exploration is turning out to be mutually beneficial for both NASA and the companies with which it finds itself collaborating.

After 25 years, military told to move from “expendable” to “reusable” rockets (Ars Technica) This is a big boon for SpaceX after more than a decade of fighting.

As the SpaceX steamroller surges, European rocket industry vows to resist (Ars Technica) After 50 years of success, Europe's main spaceport reaches a crossroads.

UK military eyes on-demand space launch from new spaceport (Defense News) The U.K. would like to get assets into space within 72 hours of need.

Britain joins the microlaunch space race with a new rocket and spaceport (Ars Technica) Orbex is targeting 2021 for the maiden launch of the Prime vehicle.

The Race to Get Tourists to Suborbital Space Is Heating Up (WIRED) Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic are quietly competing to see who will be the first to ferry tourists into space.

Roll up for Axiom’s $55 million space holiday (Times) The year is 2023 and you are holidaying in space, orbiting at 17,000 mph 250 miles above Earth. Through the largest window observatory yet constructed for space transport (by humans, at least) you...

Products, Services, and Solutions

Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus Spacecraft Successfully Concludes Ninth Cargo Supply Mission to the International Space Station (Northrop Grumman Newsroom) Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) announced that its “S.S. J.R. Thompson” Cygnus™ spacecraft successfully completed its ninth cargo supply mission to the International Space Station under NASA’s Commercial Resupply...

From Space Station Cargo Delivery to Deep Space Crew Habitats: Northrop Grumman’s Versatile Cygnus Spacecraft (Northrop Grumman Newsroom) With approximately 7,400 pounds of science experiments, tools and food tightly packed inside, Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus spacecraft was launched aboard an Antares rocket and began its journey to the International Space Station on Monday, May 21. Just...

The final launch of SpaceX’s Block 4 rocket looked stunning (Ars Technica) The Falcon 9 booster has flown 11 missions this year.

SpaceX Preps for Three Block 5 Launches in Just Two Weeks (WIRED) The company is slated to loft three payloads in just 12 days with its new and improved Falcon 9 rocket.


The Air Force Is Already Betting on SpaceX's Brand-New Falcon Heavy (WIRED) The Falcon Heavy has only flown once, but the Air Force is already buying in.

Virgin’s Unity spaceship sets a new altitude record of 52 kilometers (Ars Technica) "The views of Earth from the black sky were magnificent.”

Never Prebook Your Return Flight From a Rocket Launch (WIRED) Rocket Lab has scrubbed or delayed each of its first three launch attempts. That’s standard.

Lockheed Develops System to Link Air, Ground & Maritime Intelligence (ExecutiveBiz) Lockheed Martin has created an enterprise system designed to help military customers obtain intelligence from ground, sea, air and space platforms. DIAMONDShield employs an automated process that will allow users to analyze adversarial intent, use multidomain data in tactical decision-making and assign engagement tasks to theater operations, Lockheed said Tuesday. The system works to receive information from external sources...

Technologies, Techniques, and Standards

What NASA needs as US crew launches slip (Federal Times) NASA needs a backup plan for getting astronauts to space, given additional delays on the horizon for new commercial crew capsules.

The calculus of cheaper military comms satellites (C4ISRNET) The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Paul “Rusty” Thomas shares his thoughts on the Blackjack initiative to pilot a constellation of satellites that keep costs low and resilience high.

U.S. Air Force to expand Space Flag satellite war game (Aerospace America) American airmen will defend and attack satellites during a computer simulation. 

Satellite Imagery + Social Media = A New Way to Spot Emerging Nuclear Threats (Defense One) A research team is training computers to find and fuse clues from wildly different rivers of digital data.

What does DoD need as it transitions to multidomain operations? (C4ISRNET) In future operating environments, the services are going to need interoperable systems that can readily share and fuse data, but how they will get there remains a bit of a mystery.

The coming cyberbattle will be worse than people think (C4ISRNET) The full integration of cyberwarriors into the Army and the ability to integrate cyber capabilities into the core functions of war fighting still face many cultural battles that could slow much-needed momentum.

Cyber in movies is cool, but can the Army do it? (Fifth Domain) Leaders on an Army team that experiments with bringing cyber weapons to the battlefield say their top priority is managing commanders’ expectations.


For better electronic warfare, the Army and Marine Corps work together (C4ISRNET) The Army and Marines are conducting more cooperative exercises in electronic warfare.

The Army is bringing new electronic warfare prototypes home (C4ISRNET) Electronic warfare prototypes designed to counter Russian capabilities in Europe hit Army units stateside.

The Marine Corps wants to protect its Hornets from GPS jammers (Marine Corps Times) The Corps is facing down increased threats from electronic warfare. In Syria, adversaries have used EW attacks against AC-130 gunships.

Is it better to defend the Army’s network in the field or from afar? (Fifth Domain) An Army Cyber Command pilot program at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin is exploring the integration of cyber planners and tactical cyber operators with brigade combat teams, but also testing the effectiveness of defending battlefield networks from a remote location.

How the Army will infuse cyber operations on the battlefield (C4ISRNET) Army Cyber Command is using a pilot program, Cyber and Electromagnetic Activities Support to Corps and Below, to test the infrastructure changes necessary to insert tactical cyber teams within brigades.

How the Army is training for the digital conflict (C4ISRNET) An Army Cyber Command pilot program at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin is using a closed network with mock platforms to exploit to simulate certain effects and test integration of cyber and EW capabilities with brigade staff and tactical units.

Does DoD know how to supply intel for cyber ops? (Fifth Domain) The House Armed Services Committee is requiring a briefing on the Department of Defense's intelligence support to cyber operations.

Design and Innovation

Top Air Force intel officer: In AI, if you’re not first, you’re last. (C4ISRNET) The Air Force is recognizing the need to harness the power of automation to outpace advancing threats.

Want Siri or Alexa ready for tactical ops? This Army command is working on it. (Army Times) Other additions include screen sharing and ways for soldiers to use symbols and tracking features to share a common operating picture.

A new data-driven idea of warfare doesn’t quite add up (New Scientist) Mathematical models of conflict are seductive, but we shouldn’t throw out the lessons of the past, warns David Betz

Research and Development

USAF Plans To Test A System Called 'Symphony' Inside An 'Irascible Pod' On A U-2 Spy Plane (The Drive) The Air Force is still exploring expanding the aircraft's capabilities and mission sets even after more than 60 years of service.

Patriot missile breaks its own distance record to defeat threat target in test (Defense News) The Army's PAC-3 MSE defeated an air-breathing target July 26, breaking its own distance record at the point of impact.

Boeing suffers a setback with Starliner’s pad abort test [Updated] (Ars Technica) After the initial report, the company confirmed the issue.

Plasma powered rocket could send first humans to Mars ( A former astronaut is working on a revolutionary rocket powered by plasma, and hopes it will send the first human to Mars.

Jeff Bezos said they’d test the heck out of New Shepard—he wasn’t kidding (Ars Technica) "If you want to get good at spaceflight, you have to practice."

Is the ‘Google Translate’ of sensor systems coming? (C4ISRNET) Lockheed recently concluded a series of flight tests with DARPA on an experimental program for stitching together systems.

The military is building a space plane. Now it looks to have an engine up to the task (Stars and Stripes) The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, along with aerospace giant Boeing Co., is developing a reusable spaceplane expected to launch small satellites 10 times in 10 days.

How Does NASA Test For Spacecraft Safety? Brutalize a Replica (WIRED) In Denver, engineers have built an architecturally identical twin for Orion, NASA’s next launch vehicle—and they're putting it through its paces.

The Navy wants the weather to predict sensor interruptions (C4ISRNET) The rise of interconnected sensors means atmospheric sciences becomes more important to the Navy.

Legislation, Policy, and Regulation

A new report questions “viability” of plan to privatize the space station (Ars Technica) The future of the space station is up in the air—or rather, a vacuum.

The fate of DISA and other org chart changes in the new defense policy bill (Defense News) Some organizational changes for DoD have made it into this year’s massive, must-pass defense authorization bill.

How Congress wants DoD to tackle AI and machine learning in 2019 (C4ISRNET) The 2019 National Defense Authorization Act includes funding to the Air Force and the establishment of an independent commission on artificial intelligence.

Congress puts electronic warfare in its crosshairs (C4ISRNET) Congress hopes to bolster the Defense Department's strategic posture in an area of increasing strategic importance.

Where do information operations fit in the DoD cyber enterprise? (Fifth Domain) With the evolution of cyber and the information space, could the Department of Defense organize under a unified information command synchronizing capabilities?

What the new defense bill means for cyber (Fifth Domain) U.S. House and Senate negotiators boosted funding for cybersecurity in the annual defense authorization bill, which serves as a repudiation of the Trump administration’s foreign policy.

Iran Adviser Says U.S. Must Return to Nuclear Deal for Talks ( Iranian officials reacted skeptically on Tuesday to President Donald Trump's comments that he's willing to negotiate with his Iranian counterpart, saying instead that if Trump wants talks, he needs to rejoin the international nuclear deal he unilaterally pulled out of earlier this year.

'Do not play with lion's tail': Rouhani warns Trump (al Jazeera) Iranian president says US cannot prevent Iran from exporting oil, warns a confrontation would be 'mother of all wars'.

US bids to revive 'Arab NATO' alliance as part of measures against Iran (Deutsche Welle) The alliance would serve as a bulwark against Iran. The Shiite state has been the focus of the US president's threats, and a travel ban has seen US visa approvals for Iranians plummet.

NATO Engages 2018 (Atlantic Council) As the heads of state and government from the twenty-nine NATO member states gather in Brussels on July 11 and 12, the Atlantic Council will co-host NATO Engages: The Brussels Summit Dialogue—the official high-profile outreach effort for the...

Is NATO capable of modern deterrence? (Defense News) In the era of Little Green Men and propaganda, how does one deter a foe?

NATO summit boosts cybersecurity amid uncertainty (Fifth Domain) In what appears to be a first for NATO, leaders twice mentioned the threat of “disinformation campaigns,” that have spread chaos through western countries.

NATO insists it’s united as Trump lashes allies over budgets (Military Times) NATO leaders pledged Thursday to stand united against foes like Russia despite a tumultuous summit that saw U.S. President Donald Trump rip into his allies for failing to boost defense spending, casting a dark cloud over the world’s biggest security alliance.

Macedonia formally welcomed by NATO ― but with a warning (Defense News) Macedonia wants to join NATO, and this may be it's last shot.

Our NATO Allies Just Got Trump's Wake-Up Call — Will Europe Pick Up? (Investor's Business Daily) The European Union has used hefty U.S. defense spending and its willingness to send American troops into harm's way as part of NATO to protect Europe. It is in effect a kind of social welfare subsidy. Time for Europe to pick up its fair share of the tab.

Trump Fumed, but NATO Members Got What They Wanted (Foreign Policy) Think the NATO summit was a complete dumpster fire? Think again.

Was the Helsinki Summit Worth It? (The National Interest) The Helsinki summit set the right course for the United States and Russia in defusing tensions—until the last thirty minutes.

The Surprising Promise of the Trump-Putin Summit (Foreign Affairs) No matter the sensational headlines in the Trump-Putin summit’s immediate aftermath, a quiet yet substantive diplomatic process has the potential to yield real, and welcome, results.

'No rush' on N Korea denuclearisation - Trump (BBC News) It marks a shift in tone from the US president, who previously said the process would start very soon.

In private, Trump vents frustration over lack of progress on North Korea (Washington Post) U.S. negotiators have faced stiff resistance from their North Korean counterparts despite the president’s declaration that the crisis had been “largely solved.”

Pompeo appeals for North Korea to replicate Vietnam’s ‘miracle’ (Military Times) Undeterred by a blistering rebuke of his efforts to forge a denuclearization deal with North Korea, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on Sunday appealed for North Korea’s leadership to follow Vietnam’s path in overcoming past hostilities with the United States.

The Singapore Honeymoon Is Over (Foreign Policy) Trump in Singapore was spectacle. Pompeo in Pyongyang is the grim reality.

North Korea calls U.S. attitude toward talks ‘gangster-like’ and ‘cancerous,’ rejecting Pompeo’s assessment (Washington Post) It was unclear whether the North Korean statement represented potential doom for meaningful negotiations or was just Pyongyang’s standard negotiating style.

No One Knows What Kim Jong Un Promised Trump (The Atlantic) North Korea is reportedly continuing nuclear work. But it’s not clear that’s a violation of what it agreed to in Singapore.

Bolton says the US has a plan to dismantle North Korea’s nuclear program within a year (Military Times) President Donald Trump’s national security adviser said Sunday the U.S. has a plan that would lead to the dismantling of North Korea’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs in a year.

Mattis says US will keep current troop levels in South Korea (Military Times) Mattis said the U.S. commitment to South Korea includes keeping current U.S. force levels on the peninsula.

European rocket chief: Trump rhetoric strengthens our commitment to space (Ars Technica) "Europe is not going to say, 'I want to dominate the space world.'"

Top US Air Force general has a space-based proposal for allies (Defense News) Gen. Dave Goldfein’s pitch will prove somewhat unusual.

Senate introduces bill to streamline commercial space regulations ( Three senators introduced legislation July 25 to reform commercial space regulations with a provision that conflicts with language in a House bill.

Space Force, Space Corps, Space Guard, Space Command: Whatever form it might take, do we really need it? (Military Times) Experts say that what Trump and some in Congress want with a Space Force could be accomplished in better ways

As Trump pushes Space Force, support quietly builds for 'Space Guard' (POLITICO) A constabulary force modeled on the Coast Guard is viewed as 'more Swiss army knife than Ka-Bar.'

No space force for Trump in big Pentagon policy bill (Defense News) The 2019 defense policy bill does not create a space force. Here's what it does do.

In Search of New Rules to Protect Other Worlds From Earth's Cooties (WIRED) NASA's Office of Planetary Protection has tried to protect other worlds from us and us from other worlds since the Cold War. But the future wants a better way.

Official: Outdated classification system near the breaking point (FCW) In a new report, the chief of the Information Security Oversight Office warns that the system by which critical security information is created, classified and shared is overburdened by a reliance on paper, legacy policies and incompatible tech.

Litigation, Investigation, and Law Enforcement

Watchdog reports on alleged Syria chemical attack behind airstrikes (Military Times) The global chemical weapons watchdog said Friday in an interim report that “various chlorinated organic chemicals” were found at the site in Syria where a chemical attack is suspected of being carried out in April.

This former Navy sailor wants to sue the feds over classified submarine photos (Navy Times) A former U.S. Navy sailor who spent a year in prison for taking photos in classified areas of a nuclear submarine based in Connecticut wants to sue the Justice Department and several former government officials, including President Barack Obama.

Compiled and published by the CyberWire editorial staff. Views and assertions in source articles are those of the authors, not CyberWire, Inc. or Cosmic AES

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